The Final Chapter (1402 - 1496)

Serbian Medieval History, The Final Chapter (1402 - 1496)


Battle of Angora between Mongols and Turks with Stefan as vassal. Mongols victorious, Bayezid captured, Stefan retreats (1402).
Stefan Lazarevic obtains title of Despot from Byzantine emperor (1402).
Patriarch Sava V (1400-1406)
Belgrade becomes capital of Serbia (1403).
Rebellion of Orthodox citizens in Skadar against Venetian rule, helped by nobleman Balsa III Balsic of Zeta (1405).
Patriarch Cyril (1407-1409)

Prince Louis de Orleans killed. Civil war in France.
Despot becomes first member of new Hungarian Order of the Dragon (1408).
Vuk Lazarevic, despot's brother, and brothers Brankovic rebel against the despot. Rebels and Turks take Pristina (1408).
Temporary division of Serbia between brothers Lazarevic (1409).
Vuk Lazarevic and Lazar Brankovic executed; despot Stefan restores southern part of Serbia (1410).
Despot Stefan actively involved in Ottoman civil war . Sultan Suleiman killed, Stefan strengthens ties with Hungary (1411).

Sultan Musa attacks Serbia. Reconciliation between despot and Djuradj Brankovic, who is declared heir to throne (1412).
Battle of Mt. Vitosa, Christian-supported Mehemmed victorious, Musa beheaded, end of Ottoman civil war (1403-1413).

Kotor surrenders to Venice (1420).
Patriarch Nikon (1420-1435).
Balsa III Balsic of Zeta (Montenegro) dies, bequeathing his lands to uncle Stefan (1421).
Turkish siege of Constantinople
Despot Stefan supports new sultan Murad II in Turkish civil, gains alliance. Peace in Skadar between Serbia and Venice (1423).
Turkish advance on Serbia, diplomatically neutralized by Stefan with Hungarian help. Bosnian attack on Srebrnica repulsed (1425).
Stefan picks Djuradj as successor at council at Srebrnica. Agreement between despot Stefan and Hungarian king Sigismund in Tati (1426).
Despot Stefan dies (1427).
Despot Djuradj Brankovic (1427 - 1456)
King Sigismund recognizes Djuradj as new ruler of Serbia and vassal (1427).
Turks attack Serbia, take some towns, repulsed from mining center Novo Brdo. Construction of Smederevo, strongly fortified new Serbian capital on the Danube, begins. Djuradj accepts formal Turkish overlordship (1428).
  Djuradj reconferred title of Despot by Byzantine emperor John VIII.
Construction of Smederevo, new Serbian capital, mostly complete. The Konavle war between Dubrovnik and Serbian nobleman Radoslav Pavlovic.
War between Bosnia and Serbia (1431-1433), Serbia gains control of Usora region including towns of Zvornik and Teocak.
Patriarch Nikodim II (1433-1455).
Contract in Arasse, the end of civil war in France.
Peace between Serbia and Venice. Despot's daughter Mara married to Turkish sultan Murad.

Battle of Godomine field (near Smederevo). Despot Djuradj cedes Danube fotress Branicevo (1437).
First fall of Smederevo to Ottomans (1439).

Florentine union between Roman and Byzantine churches.
First Turkish siege of Belgrade fails, repulsed by Hungarian noble Janos Hunyady. Despot Djuradj moves to Zeta (1440).
Turks blind despot's sons Grgur and Stefan (1441).
Bosnian nobleman Stefan Vukcic Kosaca takes coastal town of Bar, Venetians Drivast and Budva (1442).
Stefan Vukcic takes title "Herceg (duke) of Saint Sava", invoking Serbian Nemanjic tradition; his main realm henceforth known as Hercegovina.
Pope declares crusade against the Turks. Venetians takes Bar. Skender-beg in Albania (1443-1464).
Christian Crusade ledby Hungarian king Vladislav, Hunyadi and Djuradj moves south, liberates most of Serbia and reaches Sofia.
Turkish sultan Murad formally recognizes restored Serbia with 24 towns. Hungarian crusaders defeated at Varna (1444).
Despot Djuradj restores Srebrenica (1445), his son Lazar receives hereditary rights to Despot title (1446).
Hostilities between Serbia and Venice over coastal Zeta. Hunyady defeated by Turks in second Kosovo battle (1448).
Death of sultan Murad, return of Mara Brankovic to Serbia (1451).
Peasant rebellion in Grbalj (Zeta coast) against Venice (1451-1452).
End of Hundred Years' War. Fall of Constantinople, end of the Byzantine empire.
Turkish raids on Serbia resume; siege of Smederevo. Hunyady defeats Turks near Krusevac.

Turks take Novo Brdo. Zeta lost to Serbian despotate, divided by Turks, Venetians and semi-autonomous rule of Stefan Crnojevic (1455).

Stefan Crnojevic (1455-1465), Great Vojvoda in Zeta.
Patriarch Arsenije II (1455-1463).

Two Roses War in England (1455-1485).
Failed Turkish siege of Belgrade; defending leaders, Hunyady and Cardinal John Capistrano, die in ensuing outbreak of plague. Despot Djuradj Brankovic dies at 82 (1456).
Despot Lazar Brankovic (1456 - 1458)
Serbian-Turkish peace (1457). Despot Lazar Brankovic makes limited advances north of the Danube, taking Kovin.
Turks conquer all of northern Serbia except Smederevo. Death of despot Lazar (1458).
Despot Stefan Tomasevic, despot of Serbia (1459), king of Bosnia (1461-1463).
Final fall of Smederevo to Turks, central Serbian state disappears. Stefan returns to Bosnia (1459).
  Ivan Crnojevic (1465-1490), semi-independent ruler in Zeta (Montenegro).

Turks take Bosnia (1463), king Stefan beheaded.
Turks take large parts of Hercegovina. Herceg Stefan dies, succeded by son Vlatko (1466).
Turkish advance against Zeta and Albania, Ivan Crnojevic flees to coastal lands (1477).

Final Turkish attack on Hercegovina, fall of Herceg-Novi. Ivan Crnojevic returns to Zeta as semi-autonomous ruler (1481). Establishment of Cetinje as capital of Zeta and seat of Orthodox Metropolitanate (vladika).
The Spanish capture Alhambra, final Muslim stronghold in Spain. Expulsion of Jews from Spain (1492).  

Djuradj Crnojevic (1490-1496), ruler in Montenegro.

Cristopher Columbus reaches America (1492).
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) dividing the New World between Spain and Portugal      
Openning of first South Slavic Cyrillic printing press in Obod (1494).
Turks force Djuradj to flee, final Serbian land of Montenegro formally incorporated into Ottoman Empire (1496).

Vasco de Gama sails to India around Africa (1497).





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